PERFUSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
Hypotonic Solutions: contain fewer electrolytes than plasma and must never be injected into the vein, as they cause blood haemolysis (red blood cells absorbing water until they explode).
Isotonic Solutions: contain the same amount of blood electrolytes. Therefore, they can be injected into the vein. They can also be used for subcutaneous injections (hypodermoclysis).
Hypertonic Solutions: contain more electrolytes than plasma and must be injected slowly and preferably into main veins, as they can cause wrinkled red blood cells and secondary vein lesions.
Rehydration Solutions: to rehydrate the body providing the required liquids.
Electrolytic Solutions: provide the electrolytes required for the body to work properly. They are useful when dehydration entails a loss of mineral salts in addition to water.
Energy Solutions: also contain nutrients (usually glucose) that help raise blood sugar levels.
Alkalizing Solutions: increase blood pH, counter-balancing acidosis, which can be dangerous in some pathological conditions.
Osmotic Diuretic Solutions: cause urine secretion, thus helping decrease the amount of water accumulated in the body.